The Constant Linear Force model requires a different explanation of composite particle structure than that given by the Standard model. The advantages gained by making this change are that it is possible at last, to understand why there is only one stable composite particle with charge (proton) and to define a clear difference between composite particle structure and atomic structure. It also forms part of the explanation as to the cause and definition of charge.
fig. 3 (to scale)
To achieve stability
a composite particle requires a central zero vacuum point (ZVP)
and a uniform wave structure.Uniform wave structure is achieved by
arranging the particles along the composite's radius in order of
alternate charge (npnpnpn....).
The Standard model states that a neutron (ddu) decays into a proton (uud) by the ejection of energy from one of the d quarks to form an e and a v particle. The Standard model does not offer any explanation of how or why this change occurs; or why only one of the two d quarks makes this change. In the Constant Linear Force model it is the number of particles that is constant. This means that if a composite particle decays to five particles, then the original composite had five particles. Table 5 illustrates how this would work. The sum of the mass values for the Standard model and The Constant Linear Force model are used to calculate the radius. The composite has two nuclei (see fig. 3) so the formula is r = 2 Fl/m. Row (d) gives the radius found by experiment, row (e) gives the theoretical radius. The best match between experimental and theoretical data for a neutron is in col. D indicating that a neutron consist of a proton with collapsed vacuum fields (0 charge) and a photon (a composite of e and p with collapsed vacuum fields).