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Baryon Radii

The diameter of both proton and have been found by experiment they are as given in row (e) of table 5.


Proton Neutron 
 (SM and CLF) (SM)   (CLF)
(a) uud ddu dduep uudep
mass   (b) 11.5 14.75 15.772 12.522
r = F/m (c) 0.375643 0.292874 0.456494 0.574974
2r  (d) 0.751286 0.585748 0.912988 1.149948
d (fermi)  (e) 0.805 1.1 1.1 1.1
(e) - (d) 0.053714 0.514252 0.187012 -0.049948


The Linear force formula can be used to predict the diameter using the sum of the particle mass values and the sum of the linear force values as shown in row (d).

It can be seen that the neutron structure that most closely matches the experimental diameter is that of the decay products of the neutron. That is to say that the neutron consists of five elementary particles, three of which are in their nucleon (same as proton) state and two are in their boson (0 charge photon) state.

Photons are created by positron-electron collision in which the vacuum fields collapse into Vacuum Zero Points (VCP) leaving the force carrier free to occupy (together with the VCPs) the vacuum fields of other particles. The photon enters the proton causing the collapse of the vacuum fields of the uud quarks creating a neutral composite particle (neutron).

Now we can see that the underlying cause of the conservation rules is the conservation of the number of VCPs in infinity.

Neutron decay most commonly occurs with the emission of an electron and a positive neutrino. In special circumstances the emission consists of a positron and a negative neutrino. The photon although often shown in Fermi diagrams of neutron decay , has never been observed experimentally. The neutrinos are often referred to as electron neutrinos, but this term is misleading. As the vacuum field (VCP) has not expanded the force carrier, of the neutrino, remains at nucleon (i.e. quark) density. It is this nucleon density that gives the neutrinos there penetrative power; they are only stopped when they collide with a nucleon.