4 may 1999 J.E. Martin
This is a revised version of an earlier
publication. The above site has been disconnected. This paper has not
been revised since the above date.
In nature the fractional sequence 1/3 2/5 3/7 4/9 etc works in an
unusual manner that is-
In a radius the distance between A and B is 1/3 of the distance A
to X where X is the centre.
the distance between B and C is 2/5 of the distance
B to X .
the distance between C and D is 3/7 of the distance
C to X .
and so on.
Below 1/3 (to the left of the main sequence) the continuation is
1/9 1/7 1/5 1/3 so far I have only found one instance of 1/5 (see
planetary waves) and none of the others; although years ago when I did a
graph of a graviton by hand, I found 1/9 and 1/7, but I have not been
able to repeat that using Excel.
This fractional sequence can be found in electrons and in the
magnetic wave structure of large bodies. This leads me to propose that
perhaps there is an underlying wave structure in the structure of the
universe and that within each wave system, the amount of force carrier
on each wave is equal to the amount of force carrier on any other wave.
On the Particle and
Charge pages I
proposed that charge is determined by the particle nucleons and binding
field density. This means that the density of the field holding the 1/3
charge in the FQHE should be the same as the density of the quark
The questions that arise is what determines the wave structure and why
does the bodies within universe have a common wave structure? I suggest
that the only force that affects all bodies equally is vacuum.
Electron fractional charges (found by experiment )
The main sequence of fractional charges found in TFQHE is:
1/3 2/5 3/7 4/9 5/11 etc
As reported in Scientific American, Jan 1999 page 9.
work on Fractional Charged Electrons
was done by
Horst L.Stormer of Bell
Laboratories, Daniel C.Tsui of Prince Town University and Robert
B.Laughlin of Stanford University
winners of the 1998 Nobel Prize for Physics.
Now for the larger bodies-
Fractional wavelengths of Hale-Bopp comet (observed)
|On the NASA photograph of comet I took the
measurements of the dust bands (white) shown in red marks on fig
W-2, these are listed as 'actual' distances in the table below.
Removing the fraction shown in blue type gives a predicted
distance for the next dust band towards the centre; these can be
compared with the next row of actual distances. (The actual
photograph cannot be reproduced for reasons of copyright. In all
cases measurements are taken to the centre of the white bands).
The measurements are within 10% of the predicted figures and less in
most cases. Given the poor quality of the photo (taken from an inset in
a larger photo) and the violent activity being photographed, I submit
this is not to far out to be an acceptable prediction.
Planetary fractional wavelengths (observed)
The vast differences in force
and time scales plus the addition of satellites leads to
planetary wave bands being more erratic than comet
wave bands; even so the average error in the above
table is less than one
tenth of the average error (for all planets) in any other planetary
distance formula. The 18% error for planet Earth could be due to
the collision that lead to the creation of the Earth/Moon system. There
does seem to be some relationship between the size of the error and the
mass of satellites.
Formation of a solar system
begins with a large dust cloud that has a weak gravity field due to a
lack of concentrated mass. But an even spread of dust also means an even
spread of EM force carrying quantum and therefore the dust cloud has a
strong EM wave structure. The dust cloud also has spin, a relic from the
creation of the universe.
As shown by the comet structure, the wave action
divides the dust cloud into rings. Gravitational action with each dust
ring collects the dust together in rock like lumps. Movement of the
system as it orbits the galactic centre causes acceleration and
deceleration of the rocks as they orbit the nucleus and allows the
gravitational action to draw the boulders together.
As the dust cloud thins out and the planetoids grow
bigger, the electromagnetic wave action weakens and eventually looses
control of the planets which then have their orbits controlled by
gravity. Whether a planet orbits inside or outside its magnetic wave
orbit depends on whether the planet was accelerating or decelerating at
the time of the changeover from wave to gravity. As the odds are 50/50
the split between inner and outer should also be 50/50 and there are 5
plus and 4 minus in the above table.
The BBC broadcast a program on planets in 2002 in
which one of the astronomers said that at present no theory of planetary
evolution accounts for the existence of the two outermost planets. If
that is true then the discovery of a magnetic wave system in the early
soar system could point the way to a solution to that problem.
figures for planetary distances are taken from Astrophysical Quantities
by C.W.Allan Third edition, page 139.
|The grey/black portion of fig W-4 is taken from page
83 of 'The structure of Spiral Galaxies' by Berlini and
Linn. It shows the theoretical structure of a perfect spiral
A spiral is superimposed in red. The distance between the
red spiral arms at A is 1/3 of the
outer arm radius and the distance at B is
2/5 of the inner arm radius,
The theoretical structure is, in the opinion of the authors the
shape spiral galaxies would reach if they were not torn apart by
The uniformity of the wave structure cannot be explained by Newton's
or Einstein's gravity because neither correctly explains the indirectly
observed gravity of galaxies (as calculated from observed stellar